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Abies nordmanniana - (Stev.)Spach.
Common Name Caucasian Fir, Christmas Tree Fir, Nordmann
Family Pinaceae
USDA hardiness 4-6
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Forests in Turkey, often with Picea spp. and often on northern slopes at elevations around 1200 - 2000 metres[93].
Range W. Asia - Caucasus
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Full shade Semi-shade Full sun

Form: Columnar, Upright or erect.

Abies nordmanniana Caucasian Fir, Christmas Tree Fir, Nordmann

Abies nordmanniana Caucasian Fir, Christmas Tree Fir, Nordmann
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of cone
Abies nordmanniana is an evergreen Tree growing to 50 m (164ft) by 5 m (16ft) at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 4. It is in leaf 12-Jan, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.


Woodland Garden Canopy;
Edible Uses
None known
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

None known
Other Uses

Wood - light, soft, not very durable, poor quality. Used for construction, pulp etc[61].
Cultivation details
Landscape Uses:Christmas tree, Pest tolerant, Screen, Specimen. Prefers a good moist but not water-logged soil[1]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Plants are very shade tolerant, especially when young, but growth is slower in dense shade[81]. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution[1]. Prefers slightly acid conditions down to a pH of about 5[200], but it tolerates more alkaline conditions than many other members of the genus[11]. Prefers growing on a north-facing slope and in areas with cool wet summers[11]. A very ornamental tree[1], it can hold its leaves for up to 26 years[81]. This species grows well in most parts of Britain but it is very susceptible to damage by aphis in some parts of the country[11]. It grows best in the Perthshire valleys of Scotland and the far west of Britain[11]. Trees grow quickly when young, a 60cm increase within 2 years of planting out is not uncommon[185]. It rarely exceeds this rate as it gets older though[185]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm in height. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[200]. Cultivated for timber in C. Europe[50]. It is also sometimes grown as a 'Christmas tree'[200]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[200]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[200]. Special Features:Not North American native, There are no flowers or blooms.
Seed - sow early February in a greenhouse or outdoors in March[78]. Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 - 8 weeks[78]. Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn[80, 113]. The seed remains viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored[113]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Alternatively, if you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of about 550 plants per square metre[78] whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position[80].
Other Names
Found In
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :
Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
Abies albaSilver Fir, Christmas Tree Fir, European Silver Fir, Silver23
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Abies balsameaBalsam Fir35
Abies cephalonicaGrecian Fir00
Abies concolorColorado Fir, White fir02
Abies delavayi 00
Abies firmaMomi Fir, Japanese Fir10
Abies fraseriShe Balsam, Fraser fir, Southern Balsam Fir13
Abies grandisGrand Fir, Giant Fir, Lowland White Fir22
Abies homolepisNikko Fir00
Abies lasiocarpaSubalpine Fir, Alpine Fir22
Abies magnificaCalifornian Red Fir, Shasta red fir00
Abies mariesii 00
Abies pindrowWest Himalayan Fir00
Abies proceraNoble Fir01
Abies recurvata 00
Abies religiosaSacred Fir01
Abies sachalinensisSakhalin Fir00
Abies sibiricaSiberian Fir01
Abies spectabilisHimalayan Fir02
Abies squamataFlaky Fir00
Abies veitchiiVeitch Fir, Christmastree00
Abies veitchii sikokiana 00
Picea abiesNorway Spruce21
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Expert comment
Botanical References
Links / References
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Readers comment
Elizabeth H.
Sopho Sat Jul 22 2006
Dear Sir or Madam, I would like to apply you from the Republic of Georgia and inform you about our offer. I am the representative of the LTD "Tlugi-98". We collect the Abies Nordmanniana cones in mountaneous parts of Georgia and provide the seeds through the special instruments. Evergreen tree is to 61 m tall, densely branched from ground up, branches regularly arranged. Bark grey-brown, smooth with resin blisters until very old. Needles dense, directed forward, 20-30 mm long, 2-2.5 mm wide, apex rounded and notched, lustrous dark green above, 2 white stomatal bands below, buds not resinous. Cones 15 cm long and 5 cm wide, cylindrical. The typical subspecies occurs in Caucasia (Abkhazia and Georgia) and in the mountains of Turkey. It grows in mountains around the Black Sea at 900-2100 m, on silicic soils. The climate is continental and wet, with annual precipitation of 1000-3000 mm. On the basis of STATE STANDARD 14161-86 the seeds we collect are acknowledged by the forest seed station (laboratory) conditioned and they belong to the FIBSI class. The price per kilo of seed starts from 45 euro to 60 euro depending on its fitness. We are looking for the partners who will purchase our product. Georgia has fantastic nature with vareous woods and different kind of plants. Our aim is to promote our country's silvers-firs and distribute the cones and seeds to foreign coutries. In case of interest we will provide you the list of foreign companies who have purchased our product. Could you be so kind to provide the information concerning the offer in case of interest. We are looking for your reply at your earliest convenience, Best Regards, Sopho Chichinadze Representative of LTD “Tlugi-98” Tel:877 78 44 22 E:mail:sopoc@hotmail.com
Elizabeth H.
natia Sun Jan 11 2009
hello we have a plantation of abies nordmaniana an if you'll take an interest we can provide you with this product,under favourable conditions.or if can can contact me and help me to comunicate with people who are interested to buy this product. email:natia_janadze@yahoo.com
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Subject : Abies nordmanniana  

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