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Abies lasiocarpa - (Hook.)Nutt.
                 
Common Name Subalpine Fir, Alpine Fir
Family Pinaceae
USDA hardiness 5-6
Known Hazards None known
Habitats Often found in poor and rocky soils[229], it is rarely seen below 600 metres. It grows in forests right up to the timber line where it is no more than a shrub on exposed slopes at high altitudes[226].
Range Western N. America - Alaska to Arizona and New Mexico.
Edibility Rating  
Other Uses  
Weed Potential No
Medicinal Rating  
Care
Fully Hardy Moist Soil Full shade Semi-shade Full sun

Summary
Form: Pyramidal, Upright or erect.

Abies lasiocarpa Subalpine Fir, Alpine Fir


http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User:Wsiegmund
Abies lasiocarpa Subalpine Fir, Alpine Fir
   
Physical Characteristics
 icon of manicon of cone
Abies lasiocarpa is an evergreen Tree growing to 25 m (82ft) by 4 m (13ft) at a slow rate.
It is hardy to zone (UK) 5 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf 12-Jan, and the seeds ripen in September. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay and nutritionally poor soils. Suitable pH: acid and neutral soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It prefers moist soil.

Synonyms
A. subalpina. Pinus lasiocarpa.
Habitats
Woodland Garden Canopy;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Inner bark;  Seed;  Seedpod.
Edible Uses: Gum;  Gum;  Tea.

The shoot tips are used as a tea substitute[177, 183]. The cones can be ground into a fine powder, then mixed with fat and used as a confection[257]. It is said to be a delicacy and an aid to the digestion[257]. The resin from the trunk is used as a chewing gum[257]. It is said to treat bad breath[257]. Inner bark[257]. No more information is given, but inner bark is often dried, ground into a powder and then used with cereal flours when making bread etc[K]. Seeds[257]. No more information is given, but the seeds are very small and fiddly to use. Seeds of this genus are generally oily with a resinous flavour and can be eaten raw or cooked[K].
Medicinal Uses


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Antihalitosis;  Antiseptic;  Deodorant;  Emetic;  Foot care;  Laxative;  Miscellany;  Poultice;  
TB;  Tonic.

Antiseptic[46, 61]. The gummy exudate that appears on the bark was soaked in water until soft and then applied to wounds[213]. An infusion of the resin has been used as an emetic to cleanse the insides[257]. The resin has also been chewed to treat bad breath[257]. A decoction of the bark is used as a tonic and in the treatment of colds and flu[257]. A poultice of the leaves has been used to treat chest colds and fevers[257]. An infusion has been taken to treat the coughing up of blood, which can be the first sign of TB, and as a laxative[257].
Other Uses
Baby care;  Deodorant;  Gum;  Gum;  Hair;  Incense;  Miscellany;  Repellent;  Wood.

The fragrant young leaves and twigs are used to repel moths or are burnt as an incense[46, 61, 169, 257]. They were also ground into a powder and used to make a baby powder and perfumes[226, 257]. A gum is obtained from the bark. It is antiseptic[46, 61] and was chewed by the N. American Indians in order to clean the teeth[226]. It was also used to plug holes in canoes[226]. An infusion of the leaves is used as a hair tonic[257]. The leaves can also be placed in the shoes as a foot deodorant[257]. Wood - light, soft, not strong. It is little used except as a fuel and for pulp[46, 61, 82]. The native North American Indians used it for making chairs and insect-proof storage boxes[257]. It was also used as a fuel and was said to burn for a long time[257].
Cultivation details
Landscape Uses:Screen, Specimen. Prefers a good moist but not water-logged soil[1]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Very shade tolerant, especially when young, but growth is slower in dense shade[81]. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution[1]. Prefers slightly acid conditions down to a pH of about 5[200]. Prefers growing on a north-facing slope[200]. Occasionally planted for timber in N. Europe[50] but this species does not thrive in Britain[11]. It is a very cold-hardy tree but the milder winters of this country make it susceptible to damage by aphis and late frosts[1, 11, 81]. The sub-species A. lasiocarpa arizonica. (Merriam.)Lemmon. is growing somewhat better here[185]. Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are quite small, between 30 and 90cm in height. Larger trees will check badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects root development and wind resistance[200]. Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows poorly[200]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[200]. The crushed foliage has a balsam aroma[185]. Special Features:North American native, There are no flowers or blooms.
Propagation
Seed - sow early February in a greenhouse or outdoors in March[78]. Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 - 8 weeks[78]. Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in the autumn[80, 113]. The seed remains viable for up to 5 years if it is well stored[113]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Alternatively, if you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings on in the shade at a density of about 550 plants per square metre[78] whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny position[80].
Weed Potential

Right plant wrong place. We are currently updating this section. Please note that a plant may be invasive in one area but may not in your area so it’s worth checking.

Conservation Status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Plants Status :
Related Plants
Latin NameCommon NameEdibility RatingMedicinal Rating
Abies albaSilver Fir, Christmas Tree Fir, European Silver Fir, Silver23
Abies amabilisRed Fir,Pacific silver fir12
Abies balsameaBalsam Fir35
Abies cephalonicaGrecian Fir00
Abies concolorColorado Fir, White fir02
Abies delavayi 00
Abies firmaMomi Fir, Japanese Fir10
Abies fraseriShe Balsam, Fraser fir, Southern Balsam Fir13
Abies grandisGrand Fir, Giant Fir, Lowland White Fir22
Abies homolepisNikko Fir00
Abies magnificaCalifornian Red Fir, Shasta red fir00
Abies mariesii 00
Abies nordmannianaCaucasian Fir, Christmas Tree Fir, Nordmann00
Abies pindrowWest Himalayan Fir00
Abies proceraNoble Fir01
Abies recurvata 00
Abies religiosaSacred Fir01
Abies sachalinensisSakhalin Fir00
Abies sibiricaSiberian Fir01
Abies spectabilisHimalayan Fir02
Abies squamataFlaky Fir00
Abies veitchiiVeitch Fir, Christmastree00
Abies veitchii sikokiana 00
Picea abiesNorway Spruce21
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Expert comment
 
Author
(Hook.)Nutt.
Botanical References
1160200
Links / References
For a list of references used on this page please go here
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Subject : Abies lasiocarpa  

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